Signs of psoriasis

itchy skin with psoriasis

The causes of skin lesions with psoriatic plaques have not been fully established. The vast majority of doctors consider genetic predisposition to be a fundamental factor in the development of pathology. Psoriasis is a systemic, non-infectious, chronic and relapsing disease that mainly affects the skin, nails and joints.

The main signs and causes of psoriasis

Psoriatic disease is characterized by increased reproduction of epidermal cells. Normally, cell division, maturation and death occur within 3-4 weeks. With psoriasis, this process takes no more than 5 days.

Externally, this is manifested by the formation on the skin of dense areas of red or pink color, covered with small white scales of dead cells. If carefully scraped off, a thin shiny film (terminal) with a clearly visible network of capillaries will be exposed. After light rubbing, droplets of blood appear on it.

This feature is called the "psoriatic triad" and is the main difference between psoriasis and other skin diseases. To confirm the diagnosis, a histological examination of the skin particles of the affected areas is carried out.

It is considered that the main factors provoking the appearance of psoriasis are:

  • Exogenous (external causes). These include various skin lesions of a physical or chemical nature.
  • Endogenous (internal causes). They can consist in the presence of diseases of the immune, endocrine systems, HIV infection. Smoking, alcohol, poor diet also cause psoriatic skin lesions.
  • Psychogenic. In most cases, the first manifestations of psoriasis appear after suffering nervous shocks or prolonged emotional overstrain.

Often rashes are a consequence of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Many doctors attribute this to a weakened immune system. People with a genetic predisposition to psoriasis are advised to avoid factors that cause it.

Forms of psoriatic disease

This or that form of the disease depends on the type of rash and the place of their localization. During pregnancy, due to changes in the hormonal background, psoriatic manifestations may disappear or, conversely, manifest themselves more strongly.

common psoriasis

The most common form of pathology. The first signs are papular rashes. They can be single, grouped on different parts or all over the body. With the progression of the disease, the psoriatic plaques increase and gradually merge with each other.

According to the form of the rashes, ordinary psoriasis is divided into:

  • dotted (dot-shaped papules the size of a match head);
  • drop-shaped (oblong spots the size of a pinhead);
  • coin-shaped (round pea-sized plates).

Rashes can take the form of an arc, a circle, a spiral, a garland. Sometimes they resemble the outlines of continents on a geographical map. If the disease is localized on the scalp, then it is called seborrheic-type psoriasis. Sometimes the neck, nose, forehead and chest are affected. Diagnosis is difficult due to the similarity of the pathology with seborrhea.

Distinctive features are the clarity of the boundaries of the affected areas, the presence of the "psoriatic triad", the silver color of the scales. Often there is itching, the hair does not fall out.

The clustering of plaques on the feet and hands gave palmoplantar psoriasis its name. It is characterized by the formation of polished areas of the skin, resembling corns. Nail psoriasis changes color, shape and structure. They loosen, become covered with small depressions and take the form of a thimble.

Isolation of the exudate from the papules causes a burning sensation. The scales stick together and form a crust that adheres firmly to the skin. In this case, they speak of the exudative form of psoriasis.

In severe cases, the entire surface of the body is affected. The skin becomes hot to the touch, acquires a red tint, swells, there is severe itching, burning and a feeling of tightness. This form of the disease is classified as psoriatic erythroderma.

Pustular psoriasis

This happens quite rarely. It develops against the background of vulgar or appears on absolutely healthy skin. In this case, inflamed areas first appear, on which blisters form during the day, quickly turning into pustules. Their contents are sterile and, once drained, dry out and form crusts.

There are several types of disease. All of them are characterized by chills, fever, fever, sometimes diarrhea, vomiting. The condition worsens when the pustules coalesce and occupy large areas of the skin. If pustular psoriasis occurs against the background of psoriasis vulgaris, then no fusion is observed.

Arthropathic psoriasis

It affects the joints, most often of small size (phalanges of the fingers and toes). Sometimes the pathological process affects the spine. This form of psoriasis often leads to disability.

The first signs of the disease are pain, aggravated by movement, and swelling of the joints. Evening fever, disruption of the gastrointestinal tract, loss of appetite are characteristic of an exacerbation of the disease.

Over time, there is deformation of the joints and loss of mobility. Pathology can develop independently or in parallel with the skin manifestations of psoriasis vulgaris.

All forms of pathology can develop gradually, over years, or rapidly over days or even hours. The treatment regimen depends on the form and degree of the disease and should be established by a specialist dermatologist.

Most often, external agents are prescribed in the form of ointments and gels and physiotherapy. In some cases, drug treatment is necessary. Self-medication can lead to exacerbation of the disease.